Black cod, Butterfish, Gindara
Seafood guides quicktabs
- Seafood Profile
- Biology & Habitat
- Science & Management
- Conservation Criteria
- Sustainability Summary
Buyers pay a premium for sablefish from Alaska because these fish are larger (5-7 lbs.) and thus considered to have a higher oil content than smaller sablefish from the U.S. West Coast (2-3 lbs.). Some longliners typically bleed and freeze their fish at-sea, resulting in a high-quality product at a higher price. Canadian trap-caught sablefish tends to be larger and is considered very high quality. Trawl-caught sablefish is rarely bled and prone to bruising, resulting in lower quality and price.
Health & Nutrition
- Total Fat15.30g
Sablefish grow quickly, up to 3 feet in length. Females are able to reproduce when they are about 6-1/2 years old and over 2 feet in length; males are able to reproduce a little earlier, at age 5 and 1.9 feet. Sablefish spawn in deeper water along the continental slope from March through April in Alaska, and from January through March between California and British Columbia. Their eggs develop in deep water for about 2 weeks until they hatch. The hatched larvae swim to the surface after they begin feeding. In southeast Alaska and British Columbia, juveniles appear in nearshore waters by fall. Sablefish are highly mobile for part of their life; in fact, some juveniles have been found to migrate over 2,000 miles in 6 or 7 years. Sablefish can live to be over 90 years old.
Small sablefish feed on zooplankton (tiny floating animals) in their first weeks of life. As they grow older, sablefish feed on whatever prey is available, from bottom invertebrates to other fish, squid, and jellyfish. Other fish, seabirds, sharks, and whales feed on sablefish.
Sablefish are found in the northeastern Pacific Ocean from northern Mexico to the Gulf of Alaska, westward to the Aleutian Islands and into the Bering Sea. There are two populations of sablefish in the Pacific Ocean. They’ve been identified based on differences in growth rate, size when they are able to reproduce, and tagging studies. A northern population inhabits Alaska and northern British Columbia waters, and a southern population inhabits waters off southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California. The two populations mix off southwest Vancouver Island and northwest Washington.
Sablefish are most common in Alaska waters. Adult sablefish live on mud bottoms in waters 650+ feet deep. Some have been found as deep as 9,800 feet. Juvenile sablefish live near the surface in nearshore waters.
NOAA’s Alaska Fisheries Science Center assesses the abundance of sablefish through annual longline surveys. Scientists also conduct trawl surveys to assess abundance every 2 or 3 years. Scientists at the Northwest Fisheries Science Center conduct bottom trawl surveys to assess the abundance of sablefish and other groundfish off the West Coast. Fishery data is collected by fishery observers and through required and voluntary logbook programs.
The Alaska sablefish population is at 9 percent above its target level. The west coast sablefish population is at 84 percent of its target level.
NOAA Fisheries has been tagging and releasing sablefish in Alaska waters since 1972. Scientists use data from this program to study sablefish movements. The results show that sablefish are highly migratory for at least part of their lives, and their movement rates are great enough to affect the amount of fish available for harvest in an area. Although the results of the longline survey are the main data used to determine sablefish quotas, tag data provide complementary information that enhances survey data.Management:
NOAA Fisheries, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Alaska fisheries) and Pacific Fishery Management Council (west coast fisheries) manage the various sablefish fisheries.
Current management in Alaska is covered under the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Groundfish Fishery Management Plans:
- Fishing season from approximately March 1 to November 15.
- Annual quota divided among fishing gear types (fixed gear (longlines and pots) harvests around 85 percent of the sablefish quota and trawl gear about 15 percent).
- Individual fishing quota program for the majority of fixed gear – individuals are allotted a specific share of the total catch to harvest throughout the fishing season.
The State of Alaska manages fisheries for sablefish in state waters under a shared quota system – all permit holders receive an equal share of the annually determined catch quota.
Current management on the West Coast is covered under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan:
- Coast-wide catch limits, allocated among the different fishing groups and gear types (trawl and fixed, each accounting for about half of the sablefish catch off the West Coast).
- Daily trip limits (a limit placed on the amount that can be caught on a daily trip out to sea) for some vessels.
- Individual fishing quota for the trawl fishery and some of the fixed gear fishery – individuals are allotted a specific share of the total catch to harvest throughout the fishing season.
- Full observer coverage in the trawl fishery, partial coverage in the fixed gear fishery.
Outside of U.S. waters, sablefish are caught along the British Columbia coast, from the Vancouver area north to the Alaska border. This fishery is managed by Fisheries and Oceans Canada disclaimer.
Impact on Stock
Sablefish, found in the northeastern Pacific Ocean are a very long-lived species, which, along with other factors, makes them inherently vulnerable to fishing pressure. The most recent stock assessments for the U.S. West Coast and Alaskan sablefish populations showed that it is not overfished or experiencing overfishing, according to the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service. Fisheries and Oceans Canada reported that sablefish stock indices have shown a general decline between 2003 and 2012. A Seafood Watch report from 2014 also noted a downward trend in the West Coast sablefish population over the past 40 years and gave it a moderate stock status concern rating.
Most of the sablefish harvest in Alaska is done using longlines, a method considered to cause minimal impact. Pots are increasingly used to catch sablefish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, but there are still so few that there’s little information on the impact, according to the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service.
Trawls are among the gear used to catch sablefish along the U.S. West Coast, which can cause damage to sensitive seafloor habitats, although they are prohibited in certain areas. Handlines and traps are also used.
Bycatch in the sablefish fishery is considered moderate and includes giant grenadier and arrowtooth flounder as well as species of rockfishes that are currently overfished, according to the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service. Bycatch of seabirds, including endangered birds, has dropped significantly due to improved management measures such as streamer lines to keep birds away from baited hooks. Seafood Watch noted in 2014 reports that there are few true “bycatch” species caught in substantial amounts across all groundfish fisheries.
Sablefish was previously overexploited, but is now considered to be effectively managed. The Alaska sablefish fishery is managed by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, which uses individual fishing quotas to ensure the fishery remains sustainable.
On the West Coast, sablefish are managed with the groundfish fishery. Management measures include area closures and an individual fishery quota system. Seafood Watch reports from 2014 called the West Coast groundfish fishery management strong because it includes updated stock assessments, biomass reference points, harvest control rules, and incorporation of uncertainty when determining catch limits.
In Canada, the sablefish fishery is managed by the Canadian Sablefish Association and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Measures include stock assessments, limited entry, gear restrictions, area closures, size limits, and a total allowable catch established through the Commercial Groundfish Integration Program.
|Origin||Harvest Method||Sustainability Ratings|
|Canada - British Columbia||Bottom Trawls|
|Canada - British Columbia||Marine Net Pen|
|Canada - British Columbia||Bottom Longline|
|Unassessed Origin||Unassessed Fishing Methods|
|USA - Alaska||Bottom Trawls|
|USA - Alaska||Set Longlines|
|USA - Alaska||Pots|
|USA - Alaska - Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands (RFM)||Bottom Longline|
|USA - Alaska - Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands (RFM)||Pots|
|USA - Alaska - Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands (RFM)||Bottom Trawls|
|USA - California||California Groundfish Collective|
|USA - North Pacific (MSC)||Longline|
|USA - West Coast||Unassessed Fishing Methods|
|USA - West Coast||Bottom Longline - IFQ|
|USA - West Coast||Bottom Longline|
|USA - West Coast||Bottom Trawls|
|USA - West Coast||Pots|
|USA - West Coast||Handline|
|USA - West Coast (MSC)||Otter Trawl|
|Worldwide||All Farming Methods|
|7 Seas Fish Co., Ltd.||Canada||British Columbia|
|A&R Seafood Company||United States||California|
|A-1 Alaska Halibut / Kachemak Bay Seafoods||United States||Alaska|
|Akulurak, LLC.||United States||Washington|
|Alaska Glacier Seafoods, Inc.||United States||Alaska|
|Alaskan Leader Seafoods, LLC.||United States||Washington|
|Alaskans Own Seafood||United States||Alaska|
|Allseas Fisheries Corp.||Canada||Ontario|
|American Fish & Seafood Company||United States||California|
|Aqualine Seafoods Ltd.||Canada||British Columbia|
|B&C Food Distributors||Canada||British Columbia|
|Blue North Fisheries, Inc.||United States||Washington|
|Blundell Seafoods||Canada||British Columbia|
|Bornstein Seafoods Inc.||United States||Oregon|
|C2C Premium Seafood||Canada||British Columbia|
|Calkins & Burke||Canada||British Columbia|
|Canadian Fishing Company||Canada||British Columbia|
|Catalina Offshore Products||United States||California|
|Catanese Classic Seafood||United States||Ohio|
|Central California Seafood Marketing Association||United States||California|
|Central Coast Seafood||United States||California|
|Clipper Seafoods, Ltd.||United States||Washington|
|Clipper Ship, Inc.||United States||Washington|
|Coal Point Seafood Company||United States||Alaska|
|Coastal Villages Seafoods, LLC||United States||Alaska|
|Codfathers Seafood Market||Canada||British Columbia|
|Daily Seafood Inc.||Canada||Ontario|
|Dana F. Besecker Company||United States||Washington|
|Deep Sea Fisheries, Inc||United States||Washington|
|Diamond Head Seafood Wholesale, Inc.||United States||Hawaii|
|E&E Foods, Inc.||United States||Washington|
|E.C. Phillips & Son, Inc.||United States||Alaska|
|Ed's Kasilof Seafoods||United States||Alaska|
|Empire Fish Company||United States||Wisconsin|
|Euclid Fish Company||United States||Ohio|
|F/V Princess||United States||California|
|FishPeople Seafood||United States||Oregon|
|Flurer Smokery Ltd.||Canada||British Columbia|
|Flying Fish Company||United States||Oregon|
|Foods In Season||United States||Washington|
|Fort Bragg Groundfish Association||United States||California|
|Fortune Fish & Gourmet||United States, United States, United States, United States, United States, United States||Illinois|
|Global Seafoods North America||United States||Washington|
|Golden Eagle Sablefish||Canada||British Columbia|
|Hallmark Fisheries, Inc.||United States||Oregon|
|Halperns' Purveyors of Steak and Seafood||United States||Georgia|
|Icicle Seafoods, Inc.||United States||Washington|
|Icy Strait Seafoods, Inc||United States||Washington|
|Intercity Packers Meat & Seafood||Canada||British Columbia|
|International Seafoods of Alaska, Inc.||United States||Alaska|
|Iquique U.S., L.L.C.||United States||Washington|
|J&B Sales Co, LLC||United States||Washington|
|John Nagle Co.||United States||Massachusetts|
|Keyport LLC||United States||Washington|
|Kodiak Island WildSource||United States||Alaska|
|Lions Gate Fisheries, Ltd.||Canada||British Columbia|
|Lusamerica Foods||United States, United States, United States||California|
|Macgregors Meat & Seafood Ltd.||Canada||Ontario|
|Marinelli Shellfish Co.||United States||Washington|
|Mark Foods, Inc.||United States||New York|
|Marx Foods||United States||Washington|
|Mikuni Wild Harvest||United States||Washington|
|Monterey Fish Market||United States||California|
|Moore's Seafood Inc.||United States||California|
|Morning Star Fisheries LLC||United States||California|
|Norpac Fisheries Export||United States||Hawaii|
|Northeast Seafood Products, Inc.||United States||Colorado|
|Northern Lakes Seafood & Meats||United States||Michigan|
|Northport Fisheries Inc.||United States||Washington|
|Northwest Fresh Seafood Company||United States||Oregon|
|NOVA Fisheries / SunWave Processors||United States||Washington|
|Ocean Beauty Seafoods LLC||United States||Washington|
|Orca Bay Seafoods, Inc.||United States||Washington|
|Organic Ocean Seafood Inc.||Canada||British Columbia|
|Pacific Fresh Fish Ltd.||Canada||Saskatchewan|
|Pacific Harvest Seafood, Inc.||United States||Washington|
|Pacific Harvest Seafoods||United States||California|
|Pacific Seafood Group, Inc.||United States||Oregon|
|Pacific Star Seafoods, Inc.||United States||Alaska|
|Palomino Foods, Inc.||United States||Washington|
|Pike Place Fish Market||United States||Washington|
|Pioneer Seafoods||United States||California|
|Port Orford Sustainable Seafood||United States||Oregon|
|Premier Catch||United States||Washington|
|Profish Ltd.||United States||District of Columbia|
|Providence Bay Fish Company||United States||Rhode Island|
|Real Good Fish||United States||California|
|Robbie's Ocean Fresh Seafood, Inc.||United States||California|
|Romanzof Fishing Co. LLC||United States||Washington|
|Royal Hawaiian Seafood||United States||California|
|Sammy's Seafood Inc||United States||Florida|
|Santa Monica Seafood, Inc.||United States||California|
|Sea Agra Seafood Ltd.||Canada||British Columbia|
|Sea Forager Seafood||United States||California|
|Sea to Table, USA||United States||New York|
|Seafood Merchants Ltd.||United States||Illinois|
|Seafood Producers Cooperative||United States||Washington|
|SeafoodS.com||United States||North Carolina|
|Seattle Fish Co||United States||Colorado|
|Seattle Fish Company - Kansas City||United States||Missouri|
|Seattle Fish Company of New Mexico||United States||New Mexico|
|Siren Fish Co.||United States||California|
|Sitka Salmon Shares||United States||Illinois|
|Sizzlefish||United States||North Carolina|
|Slade Gorton & Co Inc.||United States||Massachusetts|
|Sleeping Giant Inc.||United States||Washington|
|SOGDA Limited, Inc.||United States||Washington|
|South Bay Wild, Inc.||United States||California|
|Star Fisheries Inc.||United States||California|
|Stavis Seafoods||United States||Massachusetts|
|Stikine Seafoods||United States||Alaska|
|Tai Foong USA||United States||Washington|
|Taku Fisheries / Smokeries||United States||Alaska|
|The Alaska Guys||Singapore|
|Tonka Seafoods, Inc.||United States||Alaska|
|Tradex Foods Inc.||Canada||British Columbia|
|Tri-Star Seafood Supply Ltd.||Canada||British Columbia|
|Triad Fisheries Ltd||United States||Washington|
|Triar Seafood Company||United States||Florida|
|Trident Seafoods Corp.||United States||Washington|
|Vital Choice Seafood||United States||Washington|
|Wheeler Seafood||United States||Washington|
|Whidbey Island Seafood Company||United States||Washington|
|Wild Alaska Salmon and Seafood Company||United States||Alaska|
|Wild Bay Seafood Company||United States||Washington|
|Wild Fish Direct LLC||United States||Florida|
|Wild For Salmon||United States||Pennsylvania|
|Wild Local Seafood Co.||United States||California|
|Willowfield Enterprises Ltd.||Canada||British Columbia|
|Worldwide Seafoods (1997) Ltd.||Canada||British Columbia|
- Environmental Defense Fund
- Marine Stewardship Council
- NOAA Fisheries
- Seafood Watch Program